Our Physiotheraphy department offers electronic pelvic and cervical traction, Ultrasound, IFT, short wave diathermy, infrared therapy, TENS equipment, Mariner’s wheel & wax bath.

The vast majority of people who suffer from high blood pressure do not have any symptoms attributable to it. However, despite this, high blood pressure if left untreated for any length of time will affect organs such as the heart, kidney, blood vessels and brain. Therefore it is essential that BP is checked regularly and medicines taken continuously as prescribed by your doctor.

-Dr.U.Ram Mohan Rau, Consultant Physician.

Today’s medical technology has only progressed to the extent of being able to treat diabetes but not cure it. So your father will need to follow his doctor’s instruction regarding diet and exercise. He may also need to take tablets or insulin injection depending on his blood glucose levels and associated conditions.

-Dr.U.Ram Mohan Rau, Consultant Physician.

Poorly controlled diabetes mellitus can affect end organs such as the eye, kidney, nerves, heart and blood vessels. These ill effects can be prevented or considerably reduced only through strict control of blood glucose levels with diet, exercise and medication.

-Dr.U.Ram Mohan Rau, Consultant Physician.

Mostly Appendicectomy is done nowadays by Laparoscopic technique, also called as Key Hole Surgery. Under anaesthesia, tiny holes are made, 5 mm or 10 mm in size and entire operation and removal of appendix is done – almost always using THREE HOLES or ‘PORTS’ as they are called. One 10 mm port is for telescope and two other 5 & 5 or 5 & 10 mm ports are for instruments to be used by right and left hands of the surgeon.
A unique ‘TWO PORT’ lap. appendicectomy is routinely done in Dr.U.Mohan Rau Memorial Hospital for the last two years. Very rarely a third port is made in some difficult cases.

Rarely A SINGLE PORT operation has been done also in few highly selected patients. Such patients have very little pain, only at the single umbilical port, after surgery. And the 10 mm port within the umbilical port after surgery leaves an INVISIBLE SCAR. The second port usually 5 mm length leaves a tiny scar within the pubic hairs area.

Only our Hospital – Dr.U.Mohan Rau Memorial Hospital specialises in ‘2 Port’ & ‘One Port’ lap. appendicectomy.

-Dr.Ramesh Kumar Mohan Rao, Laparoscopic surgeon & Gen. Surgeon.
& Dr.M.Mohan Rao, surgeon

No, only complicated fractures and those involving joints and open fractures need surgery. Nowadays metal plates and screws are used for accurate correction and fixation of fractures. But even now, many fractures are still treated by reduction by manipulation and immobilisation by plaster of paris.

Dr.Ezhil Rajan, Orthopedic Surgeon.

There are several causes for long standing and persistent back pain. If the cause of the pain can be diagnosed by various investigations, treatment and cure is often possible. But sometimes in some diseases like degenerative arthritis of the spine (part of the aging process) relief is possible, but not complete cure.

Dr.Ezhil Rajan, Orthopedic Surgeon.

It is degenerative disease of the spinal bones of the neck. It may be due to excessive strain or may be partly due to ageing. Physiotherapy of various kinds including electronic traction, use of cervical collar and some medications and suitable exercises often control the disease.

Dr.Ezhil Rajan, Orthopedic Surgeon.

The soft cushion like material between vertebral bone (back bones) acting as shock absorber is the “disc”. Due to sudden strain like lifting heavy weights the disc may rupture and disc material protrudes backwards pressing on spinal cord and nerve roots producing pain.

Various types of physiotheraphy like electronic fraction, shortwave diathermy & later exercises and use of spinal brace etc. usually releive symptoms and control the disease. But absence of pain relief or sudden onset of neurological symptoms are indications for surgical operation.

-Dr.Ezhil Rajan, Orthopedic Surgeon.

Yes! Tobacco is responsible for 45% of all cancers. It is the causative agent for cancer lung, mouth, oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, kidney, urinary bladder, cervix etc. Tobacco in any form is injurious to health. Avoidance of tobacco reduces the risk of above mentioned cancers.

Drinking alcohol is associated with cancer breast, stomach, pancreas, liver etc. Hence avoiding alcohol would prevent development of abover cancers.
High fat diet is associated with cancer breast, colon, uterus & prostate.
High fibre diet (Green Vegetables and Citrus Fruits) reduces risk of colonic cancer.

Dr.V.Vedamoorthy, Consultant Oncologist.

Yes ! Most of the solid tumours (eg: Cancer Breast), if detected in early stages, are curable by combined modality of treatment, namely surgery, radiation and chemotheraphy.

Few cancers, even in advanced stages with distant metastasis, are curable; for example:
Testicular cancer.
Choriocarcinoma
Ewing’s sarcoma (Childhood bone tumour)
Rhabdomyosarcoma (Muscle tumour)
Haematological cancers like acute lymphatic leukaemia and Hodgkin’s disease are also curable.

-Dr.V.Vedamoorthy, Consultant Oncologist.

Urine contains many salts. When the salt concentration in urine is saturated by increased intake or by decreased water content in urine they start sedimenting and subsequently become stones. To quote few such salts are, calcium, oxalate, uric acid, phosphate, etc.

To prevent stone formation, take plenty of oral fluid and reduce dietary intake of food rich in above salts such as tomato, tea, juicy fruits, mutton, egg yellow, cabbage & milk products. Take more citrate (Potassium citrate) solution.

Dr.D.Thanikachalam, Senior Consultant in Urology & Andrology.

Yes, by forceful hydration either orally or by intravenous fluids, stone can be passed off. Dissolving stone by medicine is not possible. Stones can be disintegrated without operation by shock waves & ultrasonic waves and the powdered stones pass out in urine.

Dr.D.Thanikachalam, Senior Consultant in Urology & Andrology.

Apart from open operation and removal, stones can also be treated in suitable cases by following methods:

  • Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL). Removal through small puncture over the kidney.
  • Basketng of stones in ureter (tube from kidney to urinary bladder), by endoscopy.
  • The above can be aided by a device called ureteroscope.
  • Cystoscopy and lithotripsy – endoscopic visualisation and crushing and evacuating bladder stones.
  • Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy (ESWL). Shattering stone by bombarding with ultrasound shock waves.
  • Lithoclast – using airwaves.
  • LASER has also been used for stone crushing.

Dr.D.Thanikachalam, Senior Consultant in Urology & Andrology.

Prostate gland enlarges as age advances, from 45 to 65 years. This is due to influence of harmones and cell growth response.
When the gland enlarges the flow of urine becomes thin, one has to strain more to pass urine. There will be increased frequency, urge and incomplete sensation of emptying. Occassionally blood may be passed in the urine.

Dr.D.Thanikachalam, Senior Consultant in Urology & Andrology.

Yes, presently drugs are available to reduce the size of the prostate as well as to increase flow of urine when the enlargement is mild to moderate. In large glands Endoscopic methods of prostate resection is available by Electro cautery, LASER, Thermal and Ultrasound TURP. Open surgery is rarely done for very large glands (for glands weighing more than 65 gms).

Dr.D.Thanikachalam, Senior Consultant in Urology & Andrology.

Safety of anaesthesia would depend on:

  • Patient’s underlying disease status particularly condition of the heart and the lungs.
  • Preparation of the patient before surgery.
  • Selection of appropriate anaesthetic technique.
  • Skills of the anaesthesiologist.
  • Level of intra – operative monitoring.
  • Post – operative care and intensive care, if necessary.
  • Local anaesthesia, giving injections to numb the area of operation.
  • Regional anaesthesia, eg. – spinal and epidural, by which the entire lower part of body becomes immobile and painless; patient will be conscious.
  • General anaesthesia, in which patient will be fully unconscious.
  • Stop smoking.
  • Keep active, by doing moderate exercise where possible.
  • Diet and weight control.
  • Manangement of blood sugar in diabetics & blood pressure in patient with high blood pressure.
  • Keep the surgeon and anaesthetist informed of any previously difficult anaesthesia or of medications taken & allergies.

Anaesthesia carriers a small risk called standard risk like in any activity in life eg. walking on the sidewalk.

-Dr.K.Vijaykumar, Consultant Anaesthesiologist.

A hernia occurs when the intestine pushes it’s way out through an opening in the wall of the abdomen. It usually appears as a swelling in the groin. This swelling becomes more prominent whenever the child strains or cries.

Normally the testes develops inside the abdomen. Just before delivery of the baby, the testis comes down into the scrotum. For this to happen , there exists a connection between the abdomen and the scrotum . This connection usually closes off around the time of birth. In some children, it remains open. Intestines can then move into the connection and appear as a hernia.

Yes, hernias can also occur in girls, though this is less common than in boys. Though there is no testes to come down in girls, the connection exists and follows the same timetable to closure.

A hernia usually appears as a swelling in the groin. This swelling gets more prominent and larger whenever the child cries or strains. It is usually painless. Occasionally, the intestine gets stuck and cannot return to the abdomen. When this happens, the child gets pain and vomiting. The hernia now appears tense and is painful. This is an emergency and you should consult a doctor immediately.

Yes, all children with a hernia need an operation. This is because there is always a risk of the hernia getting stuck and this can endanger the child’s life.

Surgery to repair a hernia in a child is a minor operation. The surgeon will make a small cut in the groin and tie off and divide the connection between the abdomen and the scrotum. This is all that is required. The child will be able to return home the same day or the next day. There is very little pain and this is easily controlled with syrups.

Yes, this is true. In adults , the natural connection that is seen in children has closed off. They develop weakness in certain areas of the abdominal wall and have hernias through them. Therefore , the surgery too is more complex than that in children.

There is a slight increase in the chances of a hernia developing on the opposite side. This chance is greater if
(I) the baby was premature at birth,
(ii) the first hernia was on the left side and
(iii) in girls – especially if the first hernia was on the left side. Recurrence after surgery on the same side too is known, though this is rare if an experienced surgeon has done the operation.

A hydrocele is a collection of fluid around the testis.

It occurs by the same mechanism as the hernia. Only here, the opening is very small and does not permit the intestine to come thorough. All our abdomens contain some fluid. This acts like a lubricant, allowing smooth movement of the intestines. This fluid can trickle down through this small connection and this causes a hydrocele.

No, when hydroceles occur in children below the age of one year, there is a 70% chance that they will disappear on their own. The connection tends to close off on its own by 2 years of age and the hydrocele disappears. Only if the hydrocele persists beyond 2 years of age will surgery be required. As there is no intestine involved, there is no chance of the intestine getting stuck. It is safe to wait until the age of 2 years for spontaneous resolution of the hydrocele.

It is exactly the same as that for a hernia.

DR.R. Sanjay Rao, Consultant Paediatric Surgeon.

Yes indeed ! About 20% – 30% of people with diabetes are totally asymptomatic and are detected during routine health checkup or during testing for any other concomittant illness. This is more common with Type 2 diabetes who may be asymptomatic for more than 5-10 years by which time, complications of various organs might set in.

Diabetes is largely a hereditary disease with the inheritance being stronger in Type 2 diabetes. If both parents are diabetic, then the risk for the offspring is close to 100%. If either one of the parents is diabetic, there is 40% chance of the offspring getting diabetes. If parents and grandparents are diabetic, then the offspring are likely to develop diabetes at a early age – as early as – 20-25 years of age.

There are many claims that diabetes can be cured. There is no cure for diabetes except in very rare cases of spontaneous remission. Diabetes can only be control through diet and exercise and whenever necessary, medications.

-Prof. V.Mohan, Consultant Diabetologist. 
Email : mvdsc@vsnl.com

Cervical Cancer starts as an uncontrolled growth of cess in the cervix of the uterus. It leads to invasion of surrounding tissues and causes bleeding, foul smelling discharge, severe pain and later even leakage of urine, loss of weight and weakness and finally ending fatally.

It is the most frequent of all the genital tract cancers and is the second most common site of cancer in females. In India it accounts for about 80% of all genital cancers.

Bleeding per vagina in between periods or after sexual intercourse or following exertion Are eally warning signs. Sometimes white discharge p.v. especially if blood stained and foul smelling are quite suspicious.

Cervical cancer can be completely cured , if detected early. It is eminently detectable at an early stage as it can be seen with the use of vaginal speculum. It can be detected even in its pre-invasive stage by taking and studying a PAP smear.

A speculum examination is done and a scraping taken from the cervix of uterus using a wooden spatula. This is a painless out patient procedure and does not need any anaesthesia. The scrapings from the cervix is smeared on to a glass slide and sent to the pathologist to study. Since the cause of this cancer has its origin in sexual activity, screening should be started from the time sexual activity commences. Screening ang PAP smear examination are recommended once in 3 years in low risk groups and annually in high risk groups. High risk group involves those who have multiple sexual partners , who have AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases.

Surgical removal of the entire uterus and other affected parts or radiation or both combined is curative unless disease is already too advanced. Chemotherapy is rarely advocated.

This is one cancer which is preventable,if it is detected in its pre-invasive stage by periodic screening and PAP smear examination. During this pre-invasive stage abnormal cell growth is detected but full blown cancer has not started. At this stage there are no symptoms like bleeding or discharge. Treatment at this pre-invasive stage will prevent cancer cervix !

Dr. Sukhada R Rao, Consultant Obstetrician & Gynaecologist,

Otherwise called Liposurgery, it is sucking out and cutting out excess, ugly & irregularly distributed fat mass with or without excess skin too. “Liposuction” is removing exces fat under the skin using metal tubes (cannulae) and powerful suction through tiny punctures leaving hardly any scar. When liposuction is combined with excising excess of skin also it is called “Lipectomy”. Younger people generally do well with Liuposuction since skin is very elastic. But older persons and those with gross or massive fat deposits need Lipectomy along with suction of fat.

Liposurgery is not a suitable method of weight reduction. These operations only remove “fat masses” and reduce shape, size and circumference of a part of the body. Some weight reduction is incidental. Is Liposurgery result permanent? Yes; it is permanent. The amount of fat under the skin is determined by the number of living cells packed with fat. Liposurgery removes permanantly considerable number of such cells containing fat, leaving a much smaller number. This number does not increase later on.

Liposuction is currently performed through tiny metal cannulae, generally 5 mm or less leaving hardly visible (but visible, if looked for) scars. Lipectomy, however, involves cutting out exces skin and hence leaves some scar. But these scars are generally planned in such a way that they are along natural body folds or in hidden areas of body.

Like any other surgical operation, liposurgery also carries usual or “standard risk” depending upon the extent of surgery, type of anaesthesia- local or general and the health and any complicating medical diseases like diabetes, B.P. etc that the subject may be suffering. Proper evaluation and investigations and tests are done as in any other operation. In patients who undergo extensive liuposuction, rarely there may be a need for blood transfusion.

Excessive fat under the chin leading to “double chin”, upper arms, breasts (in males – called as ‘gynaecomastia’), abdomen, waist, hips, thighs- front and sides, and buttocks are the common areas where liposurgery helps in enhancing aesthetics. Though several areas can be tackled at a single sittings, in severe cases of fat deposition several sittings may be needed for the same area.

Dr. M.Mohan Rao, Chief surgeon. 
Email :mmr@mohanraohospital.com

A decayed tooth is a tooth infected with microorganisms, which causes loss of minerals from the tooth structure and consequentially causes a lot of pain at a later stage.

A tooth has a crown, which is seen outside, and a root, which is embedded inside the bone. When the infection from the crown of the tooth reaches till the root it causes inflammation at the root tip. In order to remove the infection from the root tip, root canal treatment is done. A hole is made in the crown of the tooth and various chemicals are passed till the root tip to clean the infection. Then the whole tooth is filled with a special filling material.

Due to improper oral hygiene, lot of food accumulation takes place between the gums and the teeth. These irritate the gums and cause inflammation in that region which leads to bleeding. Professional cleaning done once and followed by proper oral hygiene will avoid gum bleeding.

Stains can be within the tooth substance or on the tooth surface. Though there are various causes of teeth staining the most common causes are smoking, tobacco chewing, pan chewing, excessive consumption of beverages like tea and coffee and many more. All these stains can be easily removed by professional cleaning done by a dentist.

The science has become so advance that a tooth removal is rarely done in today’s dental practice. There are various procedures by which a natural tooth can be still retained in the oral cavity. But few instances where the tooth is extremely mobile and has lost its support it is removed. Otherwise tooth is removed in orthodontic treatment in order to create space for aligning the other teeth in the mouth. It is also removed before any radiotherapy is given to the jaw and malignancies of the jaw involving teeth.

Orthodontic treatment is done to align the teeth in a proper form, which improves the facial appearance and helps to maintain good oral hygiene. “CATCH THEM YOUNG” is a famous proverb in this regard. It is best to do it at an early age but now due to advance science it can be done at any age if the tooth support is strong.

A tooth crown is a prosthesis which covers the entire tooth visible in the mouth. It is made of various materials like metal or ceramic. It is done for various cases like a tooth having multiple carious surfaces, to strengthen the tooth after doing root canal treatment and sometimes even for cosmetic purposes.

Cleaning teeth which is professionally called Scaling is the regular removal of stains and tartar from the tooth surface. Bleaching is otherwise called tooth whitening is a procedure done to improve the whiteness of the teeth and make it look batter cosmetically.

A removable denture is a prosthesis which replaces the missing teeth and which the patient is able to remove it and put it back into the mouth on his own. Though it is the most economical way of replacing the missing teeth, many find it bulky and uncomfortable. A fixed denture is a prosthesis which replaces missing teeth and is fixed inside the mouth using the support of adjacent teeth so that it cannot be removed by the patient and behaves like the natural teeth.

The advancements in the world keep galoring in every field. However in dentistry the Dental implant and tooth tattooing are few of the recent advances practiced widely today Dental implants are used for replacing the missing tooth along with the root support in which a metal piece is placed into the jaw bone surgically and the tooth is processed over it. Dental tattooing is done for a lot of cosmetic purposes where glittering stones are attached on the surface of the teeth which gives a sparkling smile.

Dr.Kaushal Kishore, Consultant Dental Surgeon.